Personalized Therapeutic Interventions

Our team of neuro trained therapists work with the oversight of the neurologist to create a therapy program focused on the individual to find relief by implementing environmental changes, modifying daily activities and offering therapeutic & manual therapy modalities when suitable. 

Here is a list of therapeutic interventions we may use in the clinic:

Joint Mobilization

Joint mobilization is a manual therapy intervention where the PT applies straight-lined, passive force to a targeted jointed, aimed at restoring proper arthrokinematic joint motion rather than osteokinematic joint motion.

Dry Needling

A skilled intervention that uses a thin filiform needle to penetrate the skin and stimulate underlying myofascial trigger points, muscular, and connective tissues for the management of neuromusculoskeletal pain and movement impairments.

Soft Tissue Mobilization

A broad term for a manual therapy intervention where the PT uses hands-on techniques on muscles, ligaments, and fascia to break through adhesions and optimize muscle function or reduce pain.

Instrument Assisted Soft Tissue Mobilization

Soft tissue mobilization performed by the therapist using a handheld instrument to break through adhesions and fascial tissue to restore proper muscle movement, reduce muscle spasm, or reduce pain.

Ischemic Compression

A type of soft tissue mobilization technique used in manual therapy, where blockage of blood flow to an area is shunted away in order to cause a resurgence of local blood flow upon release.

Transverse Friction

A manual therapy technique used to facilitate remodeling and realigning of fibers in myofascial layers, adhesions, myotendinous junctions, or muscle belly tissue.


It is a practice in which the therapist places special cups onto the skin to create suction with the purpose to increasing blood flow to a specific area.


Rehabilitative taping techniques facilitate the body’s natural healing process while providing support and stability to muscles and joints without restricting the body’s range of motion. Kinesiotape® is just one type of therapeutic taping which can be used to either facilitate a muscle, inhibit a muscle, or support a joint/muscle attachment.

Modalities used in clinic:

Moist Heat

Physical therapy modality used to control pain, speed healing, relax muscles, and increase range of motion. 


Cheap and cheerful way to treat injuries. Ice is believed to control pain by instigating local anesthesia, decreasing edema, nerve conduction velocities, cellular metabolism and shunting local blood flow. The effect of the cryotherapy depends on the method, the duration, temperature of the ice and the depth of the subcutaneous fat. Types that we use in clinic: cold packs and ice massage.

Electrical Stimulation targeted toward pain relief

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)

  • Intended for temporary pain relief in acute and chronic pain- works through pain gating by stimulating large-diameter fibers (A-beta) that inhibit small-diameter fibers (A-delta and C).
    • Low-frequency (<10 Hz), high-intensity TENS induces analgesia by inhibiting pain transmission through the recruitment of descending inhibition mechanisms and is more frequently used for the treatment of chronic pain.
    • High-frequency TENS (80–100 Hz) is more often used for acute pain since it activates the gate control by stimulating A-beta fibers.

Interferential current (IFC) electrical stimulation

  • Intended for symptomatic relief of acute, chronic, and post-traumatic or post-surgical pain. Similar to TENS, but stronger and deeper penetrating to the skin. Effects are longer lasting than TENS.

Mechanical vibration at increasing frequencies is known as sound energy. Beyond 20,000 Hz, the mechanical vibration is known as ultrasound. The frequencies used in therapy are typically between 1.0 and 3.0 MHz (1 MHz = 1 million cycles per second)

  • Continuous (Thermal): most effective in heating the dense collagenous tissues for muscle relaxation and preparation for remodeling/lengthening.
  • Pulsed (Non-thermal): attributed primarily to a combination of stable cavitation and acoustic streaming resulting in the cell membrane becoming ‘excited’, thus increasing the activity levels of the whole cell. The ultrasound energy essentially acts as a trigger for the increased cellular process, but it is the increased cellular activity which is in effect responsible for the therapeutic benefits of the modality. Pulsed ultrasound has been demonstrated to assist in reducing inflammation, promoting proliferation and remodeling in tissues.
Types of Electrical Stimulation targeted towards skeletal muscle
  • Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS)
    • Intended for strengthening muscles, aiding in muscle hypertrophy, improving muscular endurance, and accelerating muscle recovery. Also like TENS but designed to make the muscles contract strongly.
  • Russian stimulation
    • Intended for strengthening muscles, increasing muscle size, improving muscular endurance, and accelerating muscle recovery.
    • Like EMS, but uses high frequency, sinusoidal stimulation waveforms.
  • Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES)
    • Intended for relaxing muscle spasms, preventing muscle atrophy, increasing blood circulation, maintaining or increasing range of motion, and especially for re-educating the neuromuscular system.
    • Essentially the same as EMS, but typically focused on therapeutic use (rehab) instead of athletic use (training).
  • Functional electrical stimulation (FES)
    • Intended for relaxing muscle spasms, preventing muscle atrophy, increasing blood circulation, maintaining or increasing range of motion, and especially for re-educating the neuromuscular system.
    • Essentially the same as NMES, but especially effective for neurological rehabilitation, as the stimulation is automatically controlled to turn muscle contractions into functional movements.
    • Usually incorporated into an exercise or bracing device to maximize functionality.

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